Dill, J. & Voros, K. (2007). Factors Affecting Bicycling Demand: Initial Survey Findings from the Portland, Oregon Region. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2031, 9-17.
The levels of bicycling in the United States, particularly for nonrecreation purposes and among adults, are low. Only about 1% of the trips that people make in the United States are on bicycles, and less than 5% of trips under ½ mi are made on bicycles. Factors influencing the rates of cycling include demographics and environmental factors. Environmental factors can be measured both objectively (e.g., number of miles of bike lanes, average temperature, and street connectivity) and subjectively (e.g., people’s ratings or perceptions of the bicycling environment). People’s attitudes about travel and mobility likely play a role. This paper uses the results from a random phone survey of adults in the Portland, Oregon, region to explore the relationships between levels of cycling and demographics, objective environmental factors, perceptions of the environment, and attitudes. The survey revealed several significant differences, although additional analysis is necessary. Objective measures of proximity to off-street trails and bike lanes was not associated with higher levels of cycling. However, positive perceptions of the availability of bike lanes was associated with more cycling and the desire to cycle more. Higher levels of street connectivity were associated with more cycling for utilitarian trips.